April 3 2010 Easter Sunday
The Resurrection of the Lord
At the Easter Vigil in the Holy Night of Easter
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About the sources used. The readings on this site are not official for the Mass of Roman Rite of the Catholic Church in the USA, but are from sources free from copyright. They are here to present the comparable readings alongside traditional Catholic commentary as published in the Haydock Bible for your own personal study. Readings vary depending on your local calendar.
Official Readings of the Liturgy at – http://www.usccb.org/nab/
There are nearly 20 bible readings for the Easter Vigil, including Responsorial Psalms
The longest selections are posted here. Abbreviated readings may be used at Mass at your parish.
Haydock Commentary is after all the readings. There will be a lot.
Readings 1 Genesis 1:1-2:2 or 1:1, 26-31a (Gen 1:1-2:2 posted here)
In the beginning God created heaven, and earth. And the earth was void and empty, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the spirit of God moved over the waters.
And God said: Be light made. And light was made. And God saw the light that it was good; and he divided the light from the darkness. And he called the light Day, and the darkness Night; and there was evening and morning one day.
And God said: Let there be a firmament made amidst the waters: and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made a firmament, and divided the waters that were under the firmament, from those that were above the firmament, and it was so. And God called the firmament, Heaven; and the evening and morning were the second day.
God also said; Let the waters that are under the heaven, be gathered together into one place: and let the dry land appear. And it was so done. And God called the dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, he called Seas. And God saw that it was good.
And he said: let the earth bring forth green herb, and such as may seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after its kind, which may have seed in itself upon the earth. And it was so done. And the earth brought forth the green herb, and such as yieldeth seed according to its kind, and the tree that beareth fruit, having seed each one according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And the evening and the morning were the third day.
And God said: Let there be lights made in the firmament of heaven, to divide the day and the night, and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years: To shine in the firmament of heaven, and to give light upon the earth, and it was so done. And God made two great lights: a greater light to rule the day; and a lesser light to rule the night: and the stars. And he set them in the firmament of heaven to shine upon the earth. And to rule the day and the night, and to divide the light and the darkness. And God saw that it was good. And the evening and morning were the fourth day.
God also said: let the waters bring forth the creeping creature having life, and the fowl that may fly over the earth under the firmament of heaven. And God created the great whales, and every living and moving creature, which the waters brought forth, according to their kinds, and every winged fowl according to its kind. And God saw that it was good. And he blessed them, saying: Increase and multiply, and fill the waters of the sea: and let the birds be multiplied upon the earth. And the evening and morning were the fifth day.
And God said: Let the earth bring forth the living creature in its kind, cattle and creeping things, and beasts of the earth, according to their kinds. And it was so done. And God made the beasts of the earth according to their kinds, and cattle, and every thing that creepeth on the earth after its kind. And God saw that it was good. And he said: Let us make man to our image and likeness: and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and the beasts, and the whole earth, and every creeping creature that moveth upon the earth. And God created man to his own image: to the image of God he created him: male and female he created them. And God blessed them, saying: Increase and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it, and rule over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and all living creatures that move upon the earth. And God said: Behold I have given you every herb bearing seed upon the earth, and all trees that have in themselves seed of their own kind, to be your meat: And to all beasts of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to all that move upon the earth, and wherein there is life, that they may have to feed upon. And it was so done. And God saw all the things that he had made, and they were very good. And the evening and morning were the sixth day.
So the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the furniture of them. And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made: and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done.
Responsorial Psalm 103:1-2, 5-6, 10, 12-14, 24, 35 (Ps 104 NAB)
DR Challoner Text Only
Bless the Lord, O my soul: O Lord my God, thou art exceedingly great.
Thou hast put on praise and beauty:
And art clothed with light as with a garment.
Who stretchest out the heaven like a pavilion:
Who hast founded the earth upon its own bases:
it shall not be moved for ever and ever.
The deep like a garment is its clothing:
above the mountains shall the waters stand.
Thou sendest forth springs in the vales:
between the midst of the hills the waters shall pass.
Over them the birds of the air shall dwell:
from the midst of the rocks they shall give forth their voices.
Thou waterest the hills from thy upper rooms:
the earth shall be filled with the fruit of thy works:
Bringing forth grass for cattle, and herb for the service of men.
That thou mayst bring bread out of the earth:
How great are thy works, O Lord ?
thou hast made all things in wisdom:
the earth is filled with thy riches.
Let sinners be consumed out of the earth, and the unjust, so that they be no more:
O my soul, bless thou the Lord.
OR Psalm 32:4-7, 12-13, 20 and 22 (Ps 33 NAB)
DR Challoner Text Only
For the word of the Lord is right, and all his works are done with faithfulness.
He loveth mercy and judgment; the earth is full of the mercy of the Lord.
By the word of the Lord the heavens were established;
and all the power of them by the spirit of his mouth:
Gathering together the waters of the sea, as in a vessel;
laying up the depths in storehouses.
Blessed is the nation whose God is the Lord:
the people whom he hath chosen for his inheritance.
The Lord hath looked from heaven:
he hath beheld all the sons of men.
Our soul waiteth for the Lord: for he is our helper and protector.
Let thy mercy, O Lord, be upon us, as we have hoped in thee.
Reading 2 Genesis 22:1-18 or 22:1-2, 9a, 10-13, 15-18
After these things, God tempted Abraham, and said to him:
And he answered:
Here I am.
He said to him:
Take thy only begotten son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and go into the land of vision; and there thou shalt offer him for an holocaust upon one of the mountains which I will shew thee.
So Abraham rising up in the night, saddled his ass, and took with him two young men, and Isaac his son: and when he had cut wood for the holocaust, he went his way to the place which God had commanded him. And on the third day, lifting up his eyes, he saw the place afar off. And he said to his young men:
Stay you here with the ass; I and the boy will go with speed as far as yonder, and after we have worshipped, will return to you.
And he took the wood for the holocaust, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he himself carried in his hands fire and a sword. And as they two went on together, Isaac said to his father:
And he answered:
What wilt thou, son?
fire and wood: where is the victim for the holocaust?
And Abraham said:
God will provide himself a victim for an holocaust, my son.
So they went on together. And they came to the place which God had shewn him, where he built an altar, and laid the wood in order upon it; and when he had bound Isaac his son, he laid him on the altar upon the pile of wood. And he put forth his hand, and took the sword, to sacrifice his son. And behold, an angel of the Lord from heaven called to him, saying:
And he answered:
Here I am.
And he said to him:
Lay not thy hand upon the boy, neither do thou any thing to him: now I know that thou fearest God, and hast not spared thy only begotten son for my sake.
Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw behind his back a ram, amongst the briers, sticking fast by the horns, which he took and offered for a holocaust instead of his son. And he called the name of that place, The Lord seeth. Whereupon, even to this day, it is said: In the mountain the Lord will see. And the angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven, saying:
By my own self have I sworn, saith the Lord: because thou hast done this thing, and hast not spared thy only begotten son for my sake: I will bless thee, and I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand that is by the sea shore; thy seed shall possess the gates of their enemies. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast obeyed my voice.
Responsorial Psalm 15:5, 8-11 (Ps 16 NAB)
DR Challoner Text Only
The Lord is the portion of my inheritance and of my cup:
it is thou that wilt restore my inheritance to me.
I set the Lord always in my sight:
for he is at my right hand, that I be not moved.
Therefore my heart hath been glad, and my tongue hath rejoiced:
moreover, my flesh also shall rest in hope.
Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell;
nor wilt thou give thy holy one to see corruption.
Thou hast made known to me the ways of life,
thou shalt fill me with joy with thy countenance:
at thy right hand are delights even to the end.
Reading 3 Exodus 14:15-15:1
And the Lord said to Moses:
Why criest thou to me? Speak to the children of Israel to go forward. But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch forth thy hand over the sea, and divide it: that the children of Israel may go through the midst of the sea on dry ground. And I will harden the heart of the Egyptians to pursue you: and I will be glorified in Pharao, and in all his host, and in his chariots and in his horsemen. And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I shall be glorified in Pharao, and in his chariots, and in his horsemen.
And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removing, went behind them: and together with him the pillar of the cloud, leaving the forepart, Stood behind, between the Egyptians’ camp and the camp of Israel: and it was a dark cloud, and enlightening the night, so that they could not come at one another all the night. And when Moses had stretched forth his hand over the sea, the Lord took it away by a strong and burning wind blowing all the night, and turned it into dry ground: and the water was divided. And the children of Israel went in through the midst of the sea dried up; for the water was as a wall on their right hand and on their left. And the Egyptians pursuing went in after them, and all Pharao’s horses, his chariots and horsemen, through the midst of the sea. And now the morning watch was come, and behold the Lord looking upon the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, slew their host. And overthrew the wheels of the chariots, and they were carried into the deep. And the Egyptians said:
Let us flee from Israel; for the Lord fighteth for them against us.
And the Lord said to Moses:
Stretch forth thy hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots and horsemen.
And when Moses had stretched forth his hand towards the sea, it returned at the first break of day to the former place: and as the Egyptians were fleeing away, the waters came upon them, and the Lord shut them up in the middle of the waves. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots and the horsemen of all the army of Pharao, who had come into the sea after them, neither did there so much as one of them remain. But the children of Israel marched through the midst of the sea upon dry land, and the waters were to them as a wall on the right hand and on the left: And the Lord delivered Israel in that day out of the hands of the Egyptians. And they saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore, and the mighty hand that the Lord had used against them: and the people feared the Lord, and they believed the Lord, and Moses his servant. Then Moses and the children of Israel sung this canticle to the Lord, and said:
Let us sing to the Lord: for he is gloriously magnified, the horse and the rider he hath thrown into the sea.
Responsorial Psalm Exodus 15:1-6, 17-18
DR Challoner Text Only
Let us sing to the Lord: for he is gloriously magnified,
the horse and the rider he hath thrown into the sea.
The Lord is my strength and my praise, and he is become salvation to me:
he is my God, and I will glorify him: the God of my father, and I will exalt him.
The Lord is as a man of war, Almighty is his name.
Pharao’s chariots and his army he hath cast into the sea:
his chosen captains are drowned in the Red Sea.
The depths have covered them, they are sunk to the bottom like a stone.
Thy right hand, O Lord, is magnified in strength:
thy right hand, O Lord, hath slain the enemy.
Reading 4 Isaiah 54:5-14
For he that made thee shall rule over thee, the Lord of hosts is his name: and thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, shall be called the God of all the earth. For the Lord hath called thee as a woman forsaken and mourning in spirit, and as a wife cast off from her youth, said thy God. For a small moment have I forsaken thee, but with great mercies will I gather thee.
In a moment of indignation have I hid my face a little while from thee, but with everlasting kindness have I had mercy on thee, said the Lord thy Redeemer. This thing is to me as in the days of Noe, to whom I swore, that I would no more bring in the waters of Noe upon the earth: so have I sworn not to be angry with thee, and not to rebuke thee. For the mountains shall be moved, and the hills shall tremble; but my mercy shall not depart from thee, and the covenant of my peace shall not be moved: said the Lord that hath mercy on thee.
O poor little one, tossed with tempest, without all comfort, behold I will lay thy stones in order, and will lay thy foundations with sapphires, And I will make thy bulwarks of jasper: and thy gates of graven stones, and all thy borders of desirable stones. All thy children shall be taught of the Lord: and great shall be the peace of thy children. And thou shalt be founded in justice: depart far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear; and from terror, for it shall not come near thee.
Responsorial Psalm 29:2, 4-6, 11-13 (Ps 30 NAB)
DR Challoner Text Only
I will extol thee, O Lord, for thou hast upheld me:
and hast not made my enemies to rejoice over me.
Thou hast brought forth, O Lord, my soul from hell:
thou hast saved me from them that go down into the pit.
Sing to the Lord, O ye his saints:
and give praise to the memory of his holiness.
For wrath is in his indignation; and life in his good will.
In the evening weeping shall have place, and in the morning gladness.
Reading 5 Isaiah 55:1-11
All you that thirst, come to the waters: and you that have no money make haste, buy, and eat: come ye, buy wine and milk without money, and without any price. Why do you spend money for that which is not bread, and your labour for that which doth not satisfy you? Hearken diligently to me, and eat that which is good, and your soul shall be delighted in fatness. Incline your ear and come to me: hear and your soul shall live, and I will make an everlasting covenant with you, the faithful mercies of David.
Behold I have given him for a witness to the people, for a leader and a master to the Gentiles. Behold thou shalt call a nation, which thou knewest not: and the nations that knew not thee shall run to thee, because of the Lord thy God, and for the Holy One of Israel, for he hath glorified thee.
Seek ye the Lord, while he may be found: call upon him, while he is near. Let the wicked forsake his way, and the unjust man his thoughts, and let him return to the Lord, and he will have mercy on him, and to our God: for he is bountiful to forgive. For my thoughts are not your thoughts: nor your ways my ways, saith the Lord. For as the heavens are exalted above the earth, so are my ways exalted above your ways, and my thoughts above your thoughts. And as the rain and the snow come down from heaven, and return no more thither, but soak the earth, and water it, and make it to spring, and give seed to the sower, and bread to the eater: So shall my word be, which shall go forth from my mouth: it shall not return to me void, but it shall do whatsoever I please, and shall prosper in the things for which I sent it.
Responsorial Psalm Isaias 12:2-6
DR Challoner Text Only
Behold, God is my saviour, I will deal confidently, and will not fear:
because the Lord is my strength, and my praise, and he is become my salvation.
Thou shall draw waters with joy out of the saviour’s fountains:
And you shall say in that day: Praise ye the Lord, and call upon his name:
make his works known among the people: remember that his name is high.
Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath done great things: shew this forth in all the earth.
Rejoice, and praise, O thou habitation of Sion:
for great is he that is in the midst of thee, the Holy One of Israel.
Reading 6 Baruch 3:9-15, 32C4:4 (DR numbering =Baruch 3:9-15, 3:32-4:4)
Hear, O Israel, the commandments of life: give ear, that thou mayst learn wisdom. How happeneth it, O Israel, that thou art in thy enemies’ land? Thou art grown old in a strange country, thou art defiled with the dead: thou art counted with them that go down into hell. Thou hast forsaken the fountain of wisdom: For if thou hadst walked in the way of God, thou hadst surely dwelt in peace for ever.
Learn where is wisdom, where is strength, where is understanding: that thou mayst know also where is length of days and life, where is the light of the eyes, and peace. Who hath found out her place? and who hath gone in to her treasures?But he that knoweth all things, knoweth her, and hath found her out with his understanding: he that prepared the earth for evermore, and filled it with cattle and fourfooted beasts: He that sendeth forth the light, and it goeth: and hath called it, and it obeyeth him with trembling. And the stars have given light in their watches, and rejoiced: They were called, and they said: Here we are: and with cheerfulness they have shined forth to him that made them.
This is our God, and there shall no other be accounted of in comparison of him. He found out all the way of knowledge, and gave it to Jacob his servant, and to Israel his beloved.Afterwards he was seen upon earth, and conversed with men. This is the book of the commandments of God, and the law, that is for ever: all they that keep it, shall come to life: but they that have forsaken it, to death. Return, O Jacob, and take hold of it, walk in the way by its brightness, in the presence of the light thereof. Give not thy honour to another, nor thy dignity to a strange nation. We are happy, O Israel: because the things that are pleasing to God, are made known to us.
Responsorial Psalm 18:8-11 (Ps 19 NAB)
DR Challoner Text Only
The law of the Lord is unspotted, converting souls:
the testimony of the Lord is faithful, giving wisdom to little ones.
The justices of the Lord are right, rejoicing hearts:
the commandment of the Lord is lightsome, enlightening the eyes.
The fear of the Lord is holy, enduring for ever and ever:
the judgments of the Lord are true, justified in themselves.
More to be desired than gold and many precious stones:
and sweeter than honey and the honeycomb.
Reading 7 Ezekiel 36:16-17a, 18-28
And the word of the Lord came to me, saying:
Son of man, when the house of Israel dwelt in their own land, they defiled it with their ways, and with their doings: their way was before me like the uncleanness of a menstruous woman. And I poured out my indignation upon them for the blood which they had shed upon the land, and with their idols they defiled it. And I scattered them among the nations, and they are dispersed through the countries: I have judged them according to their ways, and their devices. And when they entered among the nations whither they went, they profaned my holy name, when it was said of them: This is the people of the Lord, and they are come forth out of his land. And I have regarded my own holy name, which the house of Israel hath profaned among the nations to which they went in.
Therefore thou shalt say to the house of Israel:
Thus saith the Lord God: It is not for your sake that I will do this, O house of Israel, but for my holy name’s sake, which you have profaned among the nations whither you went. And I will sanctify my great name, which was profaned among the Gentiles, which you have profaned in the midst of them: that the Gentiles may know that I am the Lord, saith the Lord of hosts, when I shall be sanctified in you before their eyes. For I will take you from among the Gentiles, and will gather you together out of all the countries, and will bring you into your own land. And I will pour upon you clean water, and you shall be cleansed from all your filthiness, and I will cleanse you from all your idols. And I will give you a new heart, and put a new spirit within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and will give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my spirit in the midst of you: and I will cause you to walk in my commandments, and to keep my judgments, and do them. And you shall dwell in the land which I gave to your fathers, and you shall be my people, and I will be your God.
Responsorial Psalm 41:3, 5; 43:3, 4 Is 12:2-3, 4bcd, 5-6
When baptism is celebrated.
Psalm 41:3, 5; 43:3, 4 (Ps 42 NAB)
DR Challoner Text Only
My soul hath thirsted after the strong living God;
when shall I come and appear before the face of God?
These things I remembered, and poured out my soul in me:
for I shall go over into the place of the wonderful tabernacle, even to the house of God:
With the voice of joy and praise; the noise of one feasting.
Sent forth thy light and thy truth:
they have conducted me, and brought me unto thy holy hill, and into thy tabernacles.
And I will go in to the altar of God: to God who giveth joy to my youth.
When Baptism is not celebrated
Isaiah 12:2-3, 4bcd, 5-6
DR Challoner Text Only
Behold, God is my saviour, I will deal confidently, and will not fear:
because the Lord is my strength, and my praise, and he is become my salvation.
Thou shall draw waters with joy out of the saviour’s fountains:
Praise ye the Lord, and call upon his name:
make his works known among the people:
remember that his name is high.
Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath done great things:
shew this forth in all the earth.
Rejoice, and praise, O thou habitation of Sion:
for great is he that is in the midst of thee, the Holy One of Israel.
When Baptism is not celebrated
Create a clean heart in me, O God: and renew a right spirit within my bowels.
Cast me not away from thy face; and take not thy holy spirit from me.
Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation, and strengthen me with a perfect spirit.
I will teach the unjust thy ways: and the wicked shall be converted to thee.
For if thou hadst desired sacrifice, I would indeed have given it:
with burnt offerings thou wilt not be delighted.
A sacrifice to God is an afflicted spirit:
a contrite and humbled heart, O God, thou wilt not despise.
Haydock New Testament
Know you not that all we, who are baptized in Christ Jesus, are baptized in his death? For we are buried together with him by baptism unto death: that as Christ is risen from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we also may walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, in like manner we shall be also of his resurrection.
Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin may be destroyed, and that we may serve sin no longer. For he that is dead, is justified from sin. Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall live also together with Christ: Knowing that Christ rising again from the dead, dieth now no more, death shall no more have dominion over him. For in that he died to sin, he died once: but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. So do you also reckon yourselves to be dead indeed to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus, our Lord.
Responsorial Psalm 117:1-2, 16-17, 22-23 (Ps 118 NAB)
DR Challoner Text Only
Give praise to the Lord, for he is good:
for his mercy endureth for ever.
Let Israel now say, that he is good:
that his mercy endureth for ever.
The right hand of the Lord hath wrought strength:
the right hand of the Lord hath exalted me:
the right hand of the Lord hath wrought strength.
I shall not die, but live:
and shall declare the works of the Lord.
The stone which the builders rejected;
the same is become the head of the corner.
This is the Lord’s doing, and it is wonderful in our eyes.
The Holy Gospel of Jesus Christ According to Saint Luke 24:1-12
Haydock New Testament
But on the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came to the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared. And they found the stone rolled back from the sepulchre. And going in, they found not the body of the Lord Jesus.
And it came to pass, while they are astonished in mind at this, behold two men stood by them in shining apparel. And as they were afraid, and bowed down their countenance towards the ground, they said to them:
Why seek you the living among the dead? He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spoke to you, when he was yet in Galilee, Saying:
the Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.
And they remembered his words. And going back from the sepulchre, they told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest.
Now it was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary, the mother of James, and the other women that told these things to the apostles. And these words seemed to them as an idle tale: and they did not believe them. But Peter rising up, ran to the sepulchre; and stooping down, he saw the linen cloths laid by themselves, and went away wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.
Haydock Commentary 1st Reading Genesis 1:1-2:2
Notes Copied From Haydock Commentary Site
- Ver. 1. Beginning. As St. Matthew begins his Gospel with the same title as this work, the Book of the Generation, or Genesis, so St. John adopts the first words of Moses, in the beginning; but he considers a much higher order of things, even the consubstantial Son of God, the same with God from all eternity, forming the universe, in the beginning of time, in conjunction with the other two Divine Persons, by the word of his power; for all things were made by Him, the Undivided Deity. (Haydock) — Elohim, the Judges or Gods, denoting plurality, is joined with a verb singular, he created, whence many, after Peter Lombard, have inferred, that in this first verse of Genesis the adorable mystery of the Blessed Trinity is insinuated, as they also gather from various other passages of the Old Testament, though it was not clearly revealed till our Saviour came himself to be the finisher of our faith (Calmet) — The Jews being a carnal people and prone to idolatry, might have been in danger of misapplying this great mystery, and therefore an explicit belief of it was not required of them in general. See Collet. &c. (Haydock) — The word bara, created, is here determined by tradition and by reason to mean a production out of nothing, though it be used also to signify the forming of a thing out of pre-existing matter. (ver. 21, 27.) (Calmet) — The first cause of all things must be God, who, in a moment, spoke, and heaven and earth were made, heaven with all the Angels; and the whole mass of the elements, in a state of confusion, and blended together, out of which the beautiful order, which was afterwards so admirable, arose in the space of six days: thus God was pleased to manifest his free choice in opposition to those Pagans who attributed all to blind chance or fate. Heaven is here placed first, and is not declared empty and dark like the earth; that we may learn to raise our minds and hearts above this land of trial, to that our true country, where we may enjoy God for ever. (Haydock)
- Ver. 2. Spirit of God, giving life, vigour, and motion to things, and preparing the waters for the sacred office of baptism, in which, by the institution of Jesus Christ, we must be born again; and, like spiritual fishes, swim amid the tempestuous billows of this world. (v. Tert.[Tertullian?], &c.) (Worthington) (Haydock)—This Spirit is what the Pagan philosophers styled the Soul of the World. (Calmet) — If we compare their writings with the books of Moses and the prophets, we shall find that they agree in many points. See Grotius. (Haydock)
- Ver. 3. Light. The sun was made on the fourth day, and placed in the firmament to distinguish the seasons, &c.; but the particles of fire were created on the first day, and by their, or the earth’s motion, served to discriminate day from the preceding night, or darkness, which was upon the face of the deep. (Haydock) — Perhaps this body of light might resemble the bright cloud which accompanied the Israelites, Exodus xiv. 19, or the three first days might have a kind of imperfect sun, or be like one of our cloudy days. Nothing can be defined with certainty respecting the nature of this primeval light. (Calmet)
- Ver. 4. Good; beautiful and convenient: — he divided light by giving it qualities incompatible with darkness, which is not any thing substantial, and therefore Moses does not say it was created. (Calmet) — While our hemisphere enjoys the day, the other half of the world is involved in darkness. St. Augustine supposes the fall and punishment of the apostate angels are here insinuated. (L. imp. de Gen.) (Haydock)
- Ver. 6. A firmament. By this name is here understood the whole space between the earth and the highest stars. The lower part of which divideth the waters that are upon the earth, from those that are above in the clouds. (Challoner) — The Hebrew Rokia is translated stereoma, solidity by the Septuagint., and expansion by most of the moderns. The heavens are often represented as a tent spread out, Psalm. ciii. 3. (Calmet)
- Ver. 7. Above the firmament and stars, according to some of the Fathers; or these waters were vapours and clouds arising from the earth, and really divided from the lower waters contained in the sea. (Calmet)
- Ver. 11. Seed in itself, either in the fruit or leaves, or slips. (Menochius) — At the creation, trees were covered with fruit in Armenia, while in the more northern regions they would not even have leaves: Calmet hence justly observes, that the question concerning the season of the year when the world began, must be understood only with reference to that climate in which Adam dwelt. Scaliger asserts, that the first day corresponds with our 26th of October, while others, particularly the Greeks, fix it upon the 25th of March, on which day Christ was conceived; and, as some Greeks say, was born and nailed to the cross. The great part of respectable authors declare for the vernal equinox, when the year is in all its youth and beauty. (Haydock) See Tirinus and Salien’s Annals, B.C. 4053.
- Ver. 14. For signs. Not to countenance the delusive observations of astrologers, but to give notice of rain, of the proper seasons for sowing, &c. (Menochius) — If the sun was made on the first day, as some assert, there is nothing new created on this fourth day. By specifying the use and creation of these heavenly bodies, Moses shows the folly of the Gentiles, who adored them as gods, and the impiety of those who pretend that human affairs are under the fatal influence of the planets. See St. Augustine, Confessions iv. 3. The Hebrew term mohadim, which is here rendered seasons, may signify either months, or the times for assembling to worship God; (Calmet) a practice, no doubt, established from the beginning every week, and probably also the first day of the new moon, a day which the Jews afterwards religiously observed. Plato calls the sun and planets the organs of time, of which, independently of their stated revolutions, man could have formed no conception. The day is completed in twenty-four hours, during which space the earth moves round its axis, and express successively different parts of its surface to the sun. It goes at a rate of fifty-eight thousand miles an hour, and completes its orbit in the course of a year. (Haydock)
- Ver. 16. Two great lights. God created on the first day light, which being moved from east to west, by its rising and setting made morning and evening. But on the fourth day he ordered and distributed this light, and made the sun, moon, and stars. The moon, though much less than the stars, is here called a great light, from its giving a far greater light to earth than any of them. (Challoner) — To rule and adorn, for nothing appears so glorious as the sun and moon. (Menochius) — Many have represented the stars, as well as the sun and moon, to be animated. Ecclesiastes xvi, speaking of the sun says, the spirit goeth forward surveying all places: and in Esdras ix. 6, the Levites address God, Thou hast made heaven and all the host thereof; and thou givest life to all these things, and the host of heaven adoreth thee. St. Augustine Ench. and others, consider this question as not pertaining to faith. See Spen. in Origen, contra Cels. v. (Calmet) — Whether the stars be the suns of other worlds, and whether the moon, &c. be inhabited, philosophers dispute, without being able to come to any certain conclusion: for God has delivered the world to their consideration for dispute, so that man cannot find out the work which God hath made from the beginning to the end, Ecclesiastes. iii. 11. If we must frequently confess our ignorance concerning the things which surround us, how shall we pretend to dive into the designs of God, or subject the mysteries of faith to our feeble reason? If we think the Scriptures really contradict the systems of philosophers, ought we to pay greater deference to the latter, than to the unerring word of God? But we must remember, that the sacred writings were given to instruct us in the way to heaven, and not to unfold to us the systems of natural history; and hence God generally addresses us in a manner best suited to our conceptions, and speaks of nature as it appears to the generality of mankind. At the same time, we may confidently asset, that the Scriptures never assert what is false. If we judge, with the vulgar, that the sun, moon, and stars are no larger than they appear to our naked eye, we shall still have sufficient reason to admire the works of God; but, if we are enabled to discover that the sun’s diameter, for example, is 763 thousand miles, and its distance from our earth about 95 million miles, and the fixed stars (as they are called, though probably all in motion) much more remote, what astonishment must fill our breast! Our understanding is bewildered in the unfathomable abyss, in the unbounded expanse, even of the visible creation. — Sirius, the nearest to us of all the fixed stars, is supposed to be 400,000 times the distance from the sun that our earth is, or 38 millions of millions of miles. Light, passing at the rate of twelve millions of miles every minute, would be nearly 3,000 years in coming to us from the remotest star in our stratum, beyond which are others immensely distant, which it would require about 40,000 years to reach, even with the same velocity. Who shall not then admire thy works and fear thee, O King of ages! (Walker.) — Geog. justly remarks, “we are lost in wonder when we attempt to comprehend either the vastness or minuteness of creation. Philosophers think it possible for the universe to be reduced to the smallest size, to an atom, merely by filling up the pores;” and the reason they allege is, “because we know not the real structure of bodies.” Shall any one then pretend to wisdom, and still call in question the mysteries of faith, transubstantiation, &c., when the most learned confess they cannot fully comprehend the nature even of a grain of sand? While on the one hand some assert, that all the world may be reduced to this compass; others say, a grain of sand may be divided in infinitum! (Haydock)
- Ver. 20. Creeping: destitute of feet like fishes, which move on their bellies. (Menochius) — Fowl. Some assert that birds were formed of the earth, but they seem to have the same origin as fishes, namely, water; and still they must not be eaten on days of abstinence, which some of the ancients thought lawful, Socrates v. 20. To conciliate the two opinions, perhaps we might say, that the birds were formed of mud, (Calmet) or that some of the nature of fish, like barnacles, might be made of water and others of earth. (Chap. 11, 19.) — Under: Hebrew: on the face of the firmament, or in the open air. (Haydock)
- Ver. 22. Blessed them, or enabled them to produce others. — Multiply: the immense numbers and variety of fishes and fowls is truly astonishing.
- Ver. 26. Let us make man to our image. This image of God in man, is not in the body, but in the soul; which is a spiritual substance, endued with understanding and free-will. God speaketh here in the plural number, to insinuate the plurality of persons in the Deity. (Challoner) — Some of the ancient Jews maintained that God here addressed his council, the Angels; but is it probable that he should communicate to them the title of Creator, and a perfect similitude with himself? (Calmet) — Man is possessed of many prerogatives above all other creatures of this visible world: his soul gives him a sort of equality with the Angels; and though his body be taken from the earth, like the brutes, yet even here the beautiful construction, the head erect and looking towards heaven, &c. makes St. Augustine observe, an air of majesty in the human body, which raises man above all terrestrial animals, and brings him in some measure near to the Divinity. As Jesus assumed our human nature, we may assert, that we bear a resemblance to God both in soul and body. Tertullian (de Resur. 5.) says, “Thus that slime, putting on already the image of Christ, who would come in the flesh, was not only the work of God, but also a pledge.” (Haydock) See St. Bernard on Psalm xcix. (Worthington)
- Ver. 27. Male and female. Eve was taken from Adam’s side on this same day, though it be related in the following chapter. Adam was not an hermaphrodite as some have foolishly asserted. (Calmet) — Adam means the likeness, or red earth, that in one word we may behold our nobility and meanness. (Haydock)
- Ver. 28. Increase and multiply. This is not a precept, as some protestant controvertists would have it, but a blessing, rendering them fruitful: for God had said the same words to the fishes and birds, (ver. 22.) who were incapable of receiving a precept. (Challoner) — Blessed them, not only with fecundity as he had done to other creatures, but also with dominion over them, and much more with innocence and abundance of both natural and supernatural gifts. — Increase. The Hebrews understand this literally as a precept binding every man at twenty years of age (Calmet); and some of the Reformers argued hence, that Priests, &c. were bound to marry: very prudently they have not determined how soon! But the Fathers in general agree that if this were a precept with respect to Adam, for the purpose of filling the earth, it is no longer so, that end being sufficiently accomplished. Does not St. Paul wish all men to be like himself, unmarried? (1 Corinthians vii. 1, 7, 8.) (Haydock)
- Ver. 29. Every herb, &c. As God does not here express leave to eat flesh-meat, which he did after the deluge, it is supposed that the more religious part of mankind, at least, abstained from it, and from wine, till after that event, when they became more necessary to support decayed nature. (Haydock) (Menochius) — In the golden age, spontaneous fruits were the food of happy mortals. (Calmet)
- Ver. 1. Furniture, ornaments or militia, whether we understand the Angels, or the stars, which observe a regular order and obey God. (Menochius)
- Ver. 2. He rested, &c. That is, he ceased to make any new kinds of things. Though, as our Lord tells us, John v. 17. He still worketh, viz. by conserving and governing all things, and creating souls. (Challoner) — Seventh day. This day was commanded, Exodus xx. 8, to be kept holy by the Jews, as it had probably been from the beginning. Philo says, it is a the festival of the universe, and Josephus asserts, there is no town which does not acknowledge the religion of the sabbath. But this point is controverted, and whether the ancient patriarchs observed the seventh day, or some other, it is certain they would not fail, for any long time, to shew their respect for God’s worship, and would hardly suffer a whole week to elapse without meeting to sound forth his praise. The setting aside of stated days for this purpose, is agreeable to reason, and to the practise of all civilized nations. As the Hebrews kept Saturday holy, in honour of God’s rest, so we keep the first day of the week, by apostolic tradition, to thank God for the creation of the world on that day, and much more for the blessings which we derive from the Resurrection of Jesus Christ and the sending down of the Holy Ghost, which have given it a title above all other days. (Haydock) On the seventh day, at the beginning of this verse, must be taken exclusively, as God finished his work on the 6th, whence the same Septuagint and Syriac have here on the 6th day. (Haydock) — But the Hebrew and all the other versions agree with the Vulgate. (Calmet) — The similarity of ver. 6 and ver. 7 in Hebrew may have given rise to this variation. (Haydock)
Haydock Commentary 2nd ReadingGenesis 22:1-18
- Ver. 1. God tempted, &c. God tempteth no man to evil, James i. 13. But by trial and experiment, maketh known to the world and to ourselves, what we are; as here by this trial the singular faith and obedience of Abraham was made manifest. (Challoner)
- Ver. 2. Thy only begotten, or thy most beloved, as if he had been an only child; in which sense the word is often taken, 1 Paralipomenon xxix. 1. Ismael was still living; but Isaac was the only son of Sara, the most dignified wife. — Lovest. Hebrew, “hast loved” hitherto; now thou must consider him as dead. He has been to thee a source of joy, but now he will be one of tears and mourning. — Of vision. Septuagint, “high,” being situated on Mount Moria, by which name it was afterwards distinguished, ver. 14. (Menochius) — Every word in this astonishing command, tended to cut Abraham to the heart; and thence we may the more admire his strength and disinterestedness of his faith. He could hope, in a manner, against hope, knowing in whom he had trusted, and convinced that God would not deceive him, though he was at a loss to explain in what manner Isaac should have children after he was sacrificed. (Haydock)
- Ver. 3. In the night: de nocte, Hebrew, “very early in the morning.” — His son, 25 years old, without perhaps saying a word to Sara about the intended sacrifice; though some believe, he had too great an opinion of her faith and constancy, not to reveal to her the order of God. The Scripture is silent. (Calmet)
- Ver. 7. Holocaust. These were probably the only sacrifices yet in use. (Calmet) — The conversation of Isaac could not fail to pierce the heart of his father. (Menochius)
- Ver. 9. The place. Mount Moria, on part of which the temple was built afterwards; and on another part, called Calvary, our Saviour was crucified, having carried his cross, as Isaac did the wood for sacrifice. — His son: having first explained to him the will of God, to which Isaac gave his free consent; otherwise, being in the vigour of his youth, he might easily have hindered his aged father, who was 125 years old, from binding him. But in this willingness to die, as in many other particulars, he was a noble figure of Jesus Christ, who was offered because it was His will. (Haydock)
- Ver. 10. To sacrifice; a thing hitherto unprecedented, and which God would never suffer to be done in his honour, though he was pleased to try the obedience of his servant so far. The pagans afterwards took occasion, perhaps, from this history, to suppose, that human victims would be the most agreeable to their false deities: (Calmet) but in this misconception they were inexcusable, since God prevented the sacrifice from being really offered to him, in the most earnest manner, saying, Abraham, Abraham, as if there were danger lest the holy man should not hear the first call. (Haydock)
- Ver. 12. Hast not spared. Thus the intentions of the heart become worthy of praise, or of blame, even when no exterior effect is perceived. (Haydock)
- Ver. 13. He took; God having given him the dominion over it. (Calmet)
- Ver. 14. Will see. This became a proverbial expression, used by people in distress, who, remembering how Abraham had been relieved, endeavoured to comfort themselves with hopes of relief. Some translate the Lord will be seen, which was verified when Christ was crucified. (Menochius) — Or, he will provide, alluding to what was said, ver. 8.
- Ver. 16. Own self; as he could not swear by any one greater. (Hebrew vi. 13; Jeremias xxii. 5.)
- Ver. 17. Stars and dust, comprising the just and sinners. — Gates, shall judge and rule. (Haydock)
Haydock Commentary 3rd Reading Exodus 14:15-15:1
- Ver. 18. Melchisedech was not Sem: for his genealogy is given in Scripture. (Hebrew xii. 6.); nor God the Son, for they are compared together; nor the Holy Ghost, as some have asserted; but a virtuous Gentile who adored the true God, and was king of Salem, or Jerusalem, and Priest of an order different from that of Aaron, offering in sacrifice bread and wine, a figure of Christ’s sacrifice in the Mass; as the fathers constantly affirm. (Haydock) — See Pererius. St. Jerome, ep. ad Evagrium, says, “Melchisedech offered not bloody victims, but dedicated the sacrament of Christ in bread and wine…a pure sacrifice.” See St. Cyprian ep. 63, ad Cæcil.; St. Augustine, City of God xvi. 22, &c. Many Protestants confess, that this renowned prince of Chanaan, was also a priest; but they will not allow that his sacrifice consisted of bread and wine. In what then? for a true priest must offer some real sacrifice. If Christ, therefore, be a priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech, whose sacrifice was not bloody, as those of Aaron were, what other sacrifice does he now offer, but that of his own body and blood in the holy Mass, by the ministry of his priests? for he was the priest: this is plainly referred to bringing forth, &c., which shews that word to be sacrificial, as in Judges vi. 18. The Hebrew may be ambiguous. But all know that vau means for as well as and. Thus the English Bible had it, 1552, “for he was the priest.” (Worthington) — If Josephus take notice only of Melchisedech, offering Abram and his men corporal refreshment, we need not wonder; he was a Jewish priest, to whom the order of Melchisedech might not be agreeable. It is not indeed improbable, but Abram might partake of the meat, which had been offered in thanksgiving by Melchisedech; and in this sense his words are true. But there would be no need of observing, that he was a priest on this account; as this was a piece of civility expected from princes on similar occasions. (Deuteronomy xxiii. 4; 2 Kings xvii. 27.) (Haydock)
- Ver. 19. Blessed him, as his inferior, and received tithes of him, Hebrews iv. 7. This shews the antiquity of the practice of supporting God’s priests by tithes.
- Ver. 21. The persons (animas), the souls subject to my dominion. (Haydock)
- Ver. 22. I lift up. This is the posture of one swearing solemnly, by which we testify our belief, that God dwells in the heavens, and governs the world. (Calmet)
- Ver. 23. Woof-thread. The first word is added by way of explanation. Abram declares he will not receive the smallest present for himself.
- Ver. 24. Their shares, due to them on account of the danger to which they had exposed themselves. The king of Sodom could not but accept these conditions with gratitude. In a just war, whatever is taken by the enemy, cannot be reclaimed by the original proprietor, if it be retaken. (Grotius, iii. 6, de Jure.)
- Ver. 1. Canticle. Origen reckons this to be the most ancient piece of poetry. It is truly sublime, and calculated to fill the souls of those, who say their late cruel masters, now prostrate at their feet in death, with sentiments of the greatest gratitude and piety towards their almighty benefactor. (Haydock) — God miraculously gave utterance to the dumb on this occasion, (Widsom x. 21.) and taught the whole congregation of Israel to join in harmonious concert. (De Mirab. S. S. inter. op. St. Augustine) This mode of perpetuating the memory of past benefits by canticles, is very common in Scripture. (Calmet) — Let us sing. So the Septuagint The Hebrew has “I will sing…for he hath triumphed gloriously.” This canticle was composed by Moses, about 1491 years B.C. (Haydock)
Haydock Commentary 4th Reading Isaiah 54:5-14
- Ver. 5. Thee. Hebrew, “Bohalaic (Haydock) shall be your Baalim,” or husband, who was styled Lord, 1 Peter iii. 6. Perhaps he may allude to the two wives, the synagogues and the Church, or to the idols, which should be adored no more.
- Ver. 6. Youth. This enhances her fault. God is pleased to overlook it, in the captives (chap. l. 1.) and Gentiles.
- Ver. 9. Earth. Giving him the rainbow for a sign. My covenant with the Church is equally irrevocable: she is founded on a rock, Matthew xvi. 18. (Calmet) — Christ will no more abandon her than he will drown the world. Some mountains shall be moved out of their place, but she shall not. (Worthington)
- Ver. 11. Sapphires. Hebrew, “antimony,” a mineral shining like silver, 4 Kings ix. 30.
- Ver. 12. Bulwarks. Hebrew, windows of crystal; (Ezechiel xxvii. 1.; Calmet) Protestants, “of agate.” (Haydock) — All this is allegorical, like the redemption of the new Jerusalem, Apocalypse. xxi.
- Ver. 13. Lord, Christ, Jeremias xxxi. 33., and John vi. 45.
- Ver. 14. Thee. The Cutheans rendered the Jews suspected, 1 Esdras iv. 2., and vi. 1
Haydock Commentary 5th Reading Isaiah 55:1-11
- Ver. 1. Waters, which in that country are very scarce. — Milk. Septuagint, “fat.” (Calmet) — In the western Churches, wine and honey were given to the new baptized, chap. vii. 15. (St. Jerome) — Christ invites all to come to him, John iv. 14,. and vii. 37. The establishment of the Church is described under the figure of the return from Babylon. (Calmet) — Grace is offered to all. But only those are justified who thirst, and do their best, Matthew v. 6. (Worthington)
- Ver. 3. David. I will be equally faithful to you, Psalm lxxxviii. 29. Septuagint, “the holy things of David faithful,” Acts xiii. 34. The resurrection of Christ fully accomplished the promise made to David.
- Ver. 4. Him. David, who continually proclaimed the divine mercies, (Psalm xvii. 1.) or rather Christ; though Grotius alone would refer it to Jeremias. (Calmet)
- Ver. 5. Not with approbation. (Haydock) — The Gentiles are converted.
- Ver. 6. Near. He will shortly (Calmet) turn to the Gentiles, John xii. 35., and Acts xiii. 46. (Haydock)
- Ver. 7. Way. This is a necessary preliminary to God’s service. (Worthington)
- Ver. 8. My ways. I am not vindictive, but require a sincere conversion. (Calmet) — We cannot serve both God and the world. We must therefore adhere to the former. (Worthington)
- Ver. 11. Sent it. I will assuredly bring you from Babylon; and the rain shall sooner return upwards than I will break my promise.
Haydock Commentary 6th Reading Baruch 3:9-15, 3:32-4:4
- Ver. 9. Hear. God replies. (Haydock) — The Church has long read this has holy scripture, on the eves of Easter and Pentecost. (Worthington) — This second part contains an instruction respecting true wisdom; which is to be found in God alone, (Calmet) in in the people to whom he is pleased to communicate it. (Haydock)
- Ver. 11. Grown. Houbigant, “growing.” Five years had not elapsed: (Cappellus) yet they knew their captivity would be long. — Dead. Some might yield to idolatry, Daniel iii. 7, 12. (Haydock) — They were in a manner buried, (Psalm lxxxvii. 5.) and forced to dwell among people where they were exposed to many defilements, as if they had been near a dead body, Leviticus xi. 25.
- Ver. 13. Peace. There is none for the wicked; but only for the observers of the law. — For ever. Many read, “upon the land,” conformably to the Greek.
- Ver. 15. Treasures? How few are truly wise and virtuous! The great men of the world have missed their aim. Israel has received the law. Yet where is the fruit of it? This is developed in the sequel.
- Ver. 32. Evermore. Literally, “in the eternal time,” or so long ago; (Haydock) designed to continue, while kingdoms shall change, Ecclesiastes i. 4.
- Ver. 33. Trembling. The sun stops, goes back, or withdraws its light, at his command, Josue x. 12., and 4 Kings xx. 9., Matthew xxvii. 45., and Job xxxvi. 30.
- Ver. 34. Watches. They are like his soldiers, Judges v. 20., and Ecclesiasticus xliii. 12. (Calmet)
- Ver. 38. Earth, &c., by the mystery of the incarnation, by means of which the son of God came visibly amongst us, and conversed with men. The prophets often speak of things to come as if they were past, to express the certainty of the event of the things foretold. (Challoner) (Calmet) — Most of the Fathers prove Christ’s divinity from this text. (Worthington) See Tertullian, contra Prax. 6.; St. Cyprian, contra Jud. ii. 5.; Eusebius, Dem. vi. 19. — If we explain it of wisdom, it comes to the same purpose, as Christ is the wisdom of God, 1 Corinthians i. 30. Compare Proverbs viii. 30., Ecclesiasticus xxiv. 12., and Wisdom ix. 10., which no one ever suspected to be interpolated. (Calmet) (Preface)
- Ver. 1. Ever. True wisdom may be found in the law. It constitutes the happiness of Israel, Deuteronomy iv. 7. Christ perfected and fulfilled it, Matthew v. 7. — Life. Moses promised temporal blessings; (chap. iii. 14., and Deuteronomy xxx. 15.) yet the faithful would be rewarded eternally. (Calmet) — Wisdom is the law of God, chap. iii. 12. (Worthington)
- Ver. 3. Nation. Be faithful, lest another take thy place. This Christians have done, Deuteronomy xxxii. 21. (Calmet)
Haydock Commentary 7th Reading Ezekiel 36:16-17a, 18-28
- Ver. 18. Blood of their own children, and of the innocent, chap. xvi. 36., and xxii. 2., and xxxiii. 25.
- Ver. 20. Land. Yet their conduct was no better than that of infidels. Thus they throw the blame on the law, and upon God himself, Jeremias xlviii. 9., &c. (Calmet) — The Jews had provoked God to punish them with captivity; and hence the nations took occasion to blaspheme, that he could not protect them. (Worthington)
- Ver. 22. Holy, that my attributes of justice and mercy may be confessed, Isaias xlviii. 2., Daniel iii. 49., and Judith viii. 24.
- Ver. 25. Water. R. David and the Chaldean explain this of the remission of sin; and all Christians understand it of baptism in water, remitting all offences, Ephesians v. 26., and Titus iii. 5. (Worthington) — He alludes to the purification of the Jews, which prefigured baptism and penance, in which the blood of Christ is applied to our souls. This of course was only fulfilled in his church.
- Ver. 26. Flesh. The Jews at their return fell not so often into the sins of idolatry, &c., of which the prophets complained. But yet they were far from answering this character. Great irregularities prevailed under Nehemias, and in the days of the Machabees the priests publicly worshipped idols, 1 Esdras ix., and 2 Esdras v., and viii., and 2 Machabees iv., and v. Christ enables his servants to act with purity unto the end, by the influence of his all-powerful grace. (Calmet)
- Ver. 27. Do them. Hence the efficacy of grace appears, (St. Augustine; Haydock) and hereby some keep the commandments. (Worthington) — God assists our free-will. (Theodoret) (Cornelius a Lapide) (Calmet)
Haydock Commentary Romans 6:3-11
- Ver. 3. &c. We…are baptized in his death. Greek, unto his death. The apostle here alludes to the manner of administering the sacrament of baptism, which was then done by immersion or by plunging the person baptized under the water, in which he finds a resemblance of Christ’s death and burial under ground, and of his resurrection to an immortal life. So must we after baptism rise to lead a quite different life: having been also, when we were baptized and made Christians, planted as branches ingrafted in Christ, let us endeavour to bring forth the fruits of a virtuous life. (Witham) — Old man…body of sin. Our corrupt state, subject to sin and concupiscence, coming to us from Adam, is called out old man, as our state, reformed in and by Christ, is called the new man. And the vices and sins which then ruled in us, are named the body of sin. (Challoner) — The old and sinful man we must look upon as crucified with him, and the body of sin, or our sinful body, destroyed. We must look upon ourselves as dead to sin, and that we must sin no more, as Christ being once risen, dies no more. (Witham)
- Ver. 7. He that is dead is justified from sin. Some translate, is freed from sin: this is true; but perhaps it is better to retain the word justified, which is observed to be a law-word used in courts of justice, where to be justified is to be acquitted, so that a man cannot be questioned again on that account; and so are sinners, when their sins are forgiven. (Witham)
- Ver. 10. For in that he died to sin. But the sense must be for sins, or to destroy other men’s sins, he himself being incapable of sinning. (Witham)
Haydock Commentary Luke 24:1-12
- Ver. 5. It is worthy of remark, that none of the disciples or friends of Christ, were so much astonished and struck at the many apparitions of angels, &c. as to be cast down to the ground, as the guards and his enemies were, but only through respect and reverential fear looked down upon the ground. Nor even did any of them fall down prostrate to adore our Saviour, when he appeared to them; because Christ was not now to be sought in the earth, among the dead, but was risen, and was to be looked for from heaven. Hence is derived the Catholic custom of praying in Pascal time, and on all Sundays, &c. not on the knee, but with the body respectfully bent, and bowing down their countenance towards the ground. Ven. Bede.
Catena Aurea Luke 24:1-12
From Catechetics Online
- BEDE; Devout women not only on the day of preparation, but also when the sabbath was passed, that is, at sun-set, as soon as the liberty of working returned, bought spices that they might come and anoint the body of Jesus, as Mark testifies. Still as long as night time restrained them, they came not to the sepulcher. And therefore it is said, On the first day of the week, very early in the morning, &c. One of the Sabbath, or the first of the Sabbath, is the first day from the Sabbath; which Christians are wont to call “the Lord s day”, because of our Lord’s resurrection. But by the women coming to the sepulcher very early in the morning, is manifested their great zeal and fervent love of seeking and finding the Lord.
- AMBROSE; Now this place has caused great perplexity to many, because while St. Luke says, Very early in the morning, Matthew says that it was in the evening of the sabbath that the women came to the sepulcher. But you may suppose that the Evangelists spoke of different occasions, so as to understand both different parties of women, and different appearances. Because however it was written, that in the evening of the sabbath, as it began to dawn towards the first day of the week, our Lord rose, we must so take it, as that neither on the morning of the Lord’s day, which is the first after the sabbath, nor on the sabbath, the resurrection should be thought to have taken place. For how are the three days fulfilled; Not then as the day grew towards evening, but in the evening of the night He rose. Lastly, in the Greek it is “late;” but late signifies both the hour at the end of the day, and the slowness of any thing; as we say, “I have been lately told.” Late then is also the dead of the night. And thus also the women had the opportunity of coming to the sepulcher when the guards were asleep. And that you may know it was in the night time, some of the women are ignorant of it. They know who watch night and day, they know not who have gone back. According to John, one Mary Magdalene knows not, for the same person could not first know and then afterwards be ignorant. Therefore if there are several Marys, perhaps also there are several Mary Magdalenes, since the former is the name of a person, the second is derived from a place.
- AUG. Or Matthew by the first part of the night, which is the evening, wished to represent the night itself, at the end of which night they came to the sepulcher, and for this reason, because they had been now preparing since the evening, and it was lawful to bring spices because the sabbath was over.
- EUSEB. The Instrument of the Word lay dead, but a great stone enclosed the sepulcher, as if death had led Him captive. But three days had not yet elapsed, when life again puts itself forth after a sufficient proof of death, as it follows, And they found the stone rolled away.
- THEOPHYL. An angel had rolled it away, as Matthew declares.
- CHRYS. But the stone was rolled away after the resurrection, on account of the women, that they might believe that the Lord had risen again, seeing indeed the grave without the body. Hence it follows, And they entered in, and found not the body of the Lord Jesus
- CYRIL; When then they found not the body of Christ which was risen, they were distracted by various thoughts, and for their love of Christ and the tender care they had shown Him, were thought worthy of the vision of angels. For it follows, And it came to pass as they were much perplexed thereabout, behold, two men stood by them in shining garments.
- EUSEB. The messengers of the health-bearing resurrection and their shining garments stand for tokens of pleasantness and rejoicing. For Moses preparing plagues against the Egyptians, perceived an angel in the flame of fire. But not such were those who appeared to the women at the sepulcher, but calm and joyful as became them to be seen in the kingdom and joy of the Lord. And as at the Passion the sun was darkened, holding forth signs of sorrow and woe to the crucifiers of our Lord, so the angels, heralds of life and resurrection, marked by their white garments the character of the health-bearing feast day.
- AMBROSE; But how is it that Mark has mentioned one young man sitting in white garments, and Matthew one, but John and Luke relate that there were seen two angels sitting in white garments.
- AUG. We may understand that one Angel was seen by the women, as both Mark and Matthew say, so as supposing them to have entered into the sepulcher, that is, into a certain space which was fenced off by a kind of wall in front of the stone sepulcher; and that there they saw an Angel sitting on the right hand, which Mark says, but that afterwards when they looked into the place where our Lord was lying, they saw within two other Angels standing, (as Luke says,) who spoke to encourage their minds, and build up their faith. Hence it follows, And as they were afraid,.
- BEDE; The holy women, when the Angels stood beside them, are reported not to have fallen to the ground, but to have bowed their faces to the earth; nor do we read that any of the saints, at the time of our Lord’s resurrection, worshipped with prostration to the ground either our Lord Himself, or the Angels who appeared to them. Hence has arisen the ecclesiastical custom, either in memory of our Lord’s resurrection, or in the hope of our own, of praying on every Lord’s day, and through the whole season of Pentecost, not with bended knees, but with our faces bowed to the earth. But not in the sepulcher, which is the place of the dead, was He to be sought, who rose from the dead to life. And therefore it is added, They said to them, that is, the Angels to the women, Why seek you the living among the dead? He is not here, but is risen. On the third day then, as He Himself foretold to the women, together with the rest of His disciples, He celebrated the triumph of His resurrection.
- Hence it follows, Remember how he spoke to you when he was yet in Galilee, saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and on the third day rise again, &c. For on the day of the preparation at the ninth hour giving up the ghost, buried in the evening, early on the morning of the first day of the week He rose again.
- ATHAN. He might indeed at once have raised His body from the dead. But some one would have said that He was never dead, or that death plainly had never existed in Him. And perhaps if the resurrection of our Lord had been delayed beyond the third day, the glory of incorruption had been concealed. In order therefore to show His body to be dead, He suffered the interval of one day, and on the third day manifested His body to be without corruption.
- BEDE; One day and two nights also He lay in the sepulcher, because He joined the light of His single death to the darkness of our double death.
- CYRIL; Now the women, when they had received the sayings of the Angels, hastened to tell them to the disciples; as it follows,
- And they remembered his words, and returned from the sepulcher, and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest. For woman who was once the minister of death, is now the first to receive and tell the awful mystery of the resurrection. The female race has obtained therefore both deliverance from reproach, and the withdrawal of the curse.
- AMBROSE; It is not allowed to women to teach in the church, but they shall ask their husbands at home. To those then who are at home is the woman sent. But who these women were he explains, adding, It was Mary Magdalene,
- BEDE; (who was also the sister of Lazarus,) and Joanna, (the wife of Chuza, Herod’s steward,) and Mary the mother of James, (that is, the mother of James the less, and Joseph.) And it is added generally of the others, and other women that were with them, which told these things to the Apostles.
- BEDE; For that the woman might not endure the everlasting reproach of guilt from men, she who had transfused sin into the man, now also transfuses grace.
- THEOPHYL. Now the miracle of the resurrection is naturally incredible to mankind. Hence it follows, And their words seemed to them as idle tales.
- BEDE; Which was not so much their weakness, as so to speak our strength. For the resurrection itself was demonstrated to those who doubted by many proofs, which while we read and acknowledge we are through their doubts confirmed in the truth.
- THEOPHYL. Peter, as soon as he heard this, delays not, but runs to the sepulcher; for fire when applied to matter knows no delay; as it follows, Then arose Peter, and ran to the sepulcher.
- EUSEB. For he alone believed the women saying that they had seen Angels; and as he was of more ardent feelings than the rest, he anxiously put himself foremost, looking every where for the Lord; as it follows, And stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves.
- THEOPHYL. But now when he was at the tomb, he first of all obtained that he should marvel at those things which had before been derided by himself or the others; as it is said, And departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass; that is, wondering in himself at the way in which it had happened, how the linen clothes had been left behind, since the body was anointed with myrrh; or what opportunity the thief had obtained, that putting away the clothes wrapped up by themselves, he should take away the body with the soldiers standing round.
- AUG. Luke is supposed to have mentioned this concerning Peter, recapitulating. For Peter ran to the sepulcher at the same time that John also went, as soon as it had been told to them alone by the women, (especially Mary Magdalene,) that the body was taken away. But the vision of Angels took place afterwards. Luke therefore mentioned Peter only, because to him Mary first told it. It may also strike one, that Luke says that Peter, not entering but stooping down, saw the linen clothes by themselves, and departed wondering, whereas John says, that he himself saw the linen clothes in the same position, and that he entered after Peter. We must understand then that Peter first saw them stooping down, which Luke mentions, John omits, but that he afterwards entered before John came in.
- BEDE; According to the mystical meaning, by the women coming early in the morning to the sepulcher, we have an example given us, that having cast away the darkness of our vices, we should come to the Body of the Lord. For that sepulcher also bore the figure of the Altar of the Lord, wherein herein the mysteries of Christ’s Body, not in silk or purple cloth, but in pure white linen, like that in which Joseph wrapped it, ought to be consecrated, that as He offered up to death for us the true substance of His earthly nature, so we also in commemoration of Him should place on the Altar the flax, pure from the plant of the earth, and white, and in many ways refined by a kind of crushing to death. But the spices which the women bring, signify the odor of virtue, and the sweetness of prayers by which we ought to approach the Altar. The rolling back of the stone alludes to the unclosing of the Sacraments which were concealed by the veil of the letter of the law which was written on stone, the covering of which being taken away, the dead body of the Lord is not found, but the living body is preached; for although we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now henceforth know we Him no more. But as when the Body of our Lord lay in the sepulcher, Angels are said to have stood by, so also at the time of consecration are they to be believed to stand by the mysteries of Christ. Let us then after the example of the devout women, whenever we approach the heavenly mysteries because of the presence of the Angels, or from reverence to the Sacred Offering, with all humility, bow our faces to the earth, recollecting that we are but dust and ashes.